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The silicon wafer can then withstand the high temperatures and chemical etching used to remove the circuits from the wafer. Researchers have designed peelable electronic films that can be cut and pasted onto any object to achieve desired functions. (Credit: Chi Hwan Lee/Purdue) High temperatures and etching damage the silicon wafer, however, forcing the manufacturing process to accommodate an entirely new wafer each time. Lee’s new fabrication technique, called “transfer printing,” cuts down manufacturing costs by using a single wafer to build a nearly infinite number of thin films holding electronic circuits. Instead of high temperatures and chemicals, the film can peel off at room temperature with the energy-saving help of simply water. Gas sensors are like tiny electronic rescue dogs “It’s like the red paint on San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge—paint peels because the environment is very wet,” Lee says. “So in our case, submerging the wafer and completed circuit in water significantly reduces the mechanical peeling stress and is environmentally friendly.” A ductile metal layer, such as nickel, inserted between the electronic film and the silicon wafer, makes the peeling possible in water. Researchers can then trim these thin-film electronics and paste them onto any surface, granting that object electronic features. Putting one of the stickers on a flower pot, for example, made that flower pot capable of sensing temperature changes that could affect the plant’s growth. Lee’s lab also demonstrated that the components of electronic integrated circuits work just as well before and after they were made into a thin film peeled from a silicon wafer. The researchers used one film to turn on and off an LED light display.
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